2008, Validation of microarray-based resequencing of 93 worldwide mitochondrial genomes, Hum. 30, 115-122, (2009)H Hartmann et al Distinctive Paleo-Indian migration routes from Beringia marked by two rare mt DNA haplogroups, Current Biology 19 1-8 (2009) Perego et al Initial peopling of the Americas: A growing number of founding mitochondrial genomes from Beringia, Genome Research 20, 1174-1179, 2010 Perego et al Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, October 2011, An Alternative Model for the Early Peopling of Southern South America Revealed by Analyses of Three Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, de Saint Pierre et al, 2012, PLOS Rapid coastal spread of first Americans: Novel insights from South America’s Southern Cone mitochondrial genomes, Genome Research 22, 811-820, 2012, Bodner et al Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes, de Saint Pierre et al, Dec.
The protocol and logic for adding the Anzick results for consideration, along with other evidence is discussed in this article.For haplogroups though to be only Native, I have put any other submission information, which is often from Siberia.I have labeled the major founding haplogroups, as such.Haplogroup names sometimes change with new versions of the Phylotree.Phylotree builds occurred as follows: Mt DNA References Mitochondiral genome variation and the origin of modern humans, Ingman et al, Natuer 2000, DNA and the Peopling of the New World, Theodore Schurr, American Scientist, 2000, Sci Article 2000Brief Communication: Haplogroup X Confirmed in Prehistoric North America, Ripan Malhi et al, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2002, of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia, Olga Derbeneva et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2002, High Resolution SNPs and Microsatellite Haplotypes Point to a Single, Recent Entry of native American Y Chromosomes into the Americas, Zegura et al, Oxford Journals, 2003, Ancient individuals from the North American Northwest Coast reveal 10,000 years of regional genetic continuity by John Lindo et al, published in PNAS April 2017 Mitochondrial haplogroup M discovered in prehistoric North Americans, Ripan Malhi et al, Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007), Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders, Erika Tamm et al, PLOS One, September 2007, , Human Biology, 2007 Achilli A, Perego UA, Bravi CM, Coble MD, et al.They spoke a language with no known close relatives, although it may be very distantly related to the Muskogean languages of the Creek Confederacy.
The Natchez are noted for being the only Mississippian culture with complex chiefdom characteristics to have survived long into the period after the European colonization of America began.Many mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are subgroups of known Native groups, but never before documented as Native.Therefore, the protocol I followed for inclusion was any subgroup of haplogroups A, B, C, D, M or X.Normally, you could presume that if haplogroup A2 is Native, for example, that A2a, downstream of A2, would also be Native, but that’s not always true. A2 is a subset of A4, which you wouldn’t expect, and we believe that haplogroup A4a is actually Native. If you want to see these in tree fashion, you can visit click on Phylogeny, click on Expand All, then search on A4, for example. Please note that I am adding information from haplogroup projects at Family Tree DNA.This information is self-reported and should only be utilized with confidence after confirming the accuracy of the information.It was a strongly matrilineal kinship society, with descent reckoned along female lines.