Topamax expiration dating
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Further, Martinson derided the theory of “crime as a social phenomena,” arguing that rehabilitative strategies “have on occasion become, and have the potential for becoming, so draconian as to offend the moral order of a democratic society.” He also worried that rehabilitation implied releasing those who have little risk of re-offending, but keeping high-risk criminals locked up so that they might be rehabilitated.He wrote:“A middle-class banker who kills his adulterous wife in a moment of passion is a ‘low risk’ criminal; a juvenile delinquent in the ghetto who commits armed robbery has, statically, a much higher probability of committing another crime.
Cullen says Martinson’s work was soon after “reified,” creating a widely accepted “nothing works doctrine” (Cullen 2005). The short answer to the question, Do compounded medications ever expire, is yes: compounded medications, like all medications, eventually expire.All medications, including compounded drugs, have a period during which they are most effective.For instance, doing well in a prison’s educational programming or counselling made no impact on recidivism.Further, Martinson’s review found that the length of a sentence had no impact on recidivism.This scholarship fueled a wave of reforms that shifted the juvenile justice system away from rehabilitation and toward other goals like deterrence and incapacitation. The 736 pages was the result of a six month effort to comb through every good study they could find about rehabilitation. This was their conclusion: “With few exceptions, the rehabilitative efforts that have been reported so far have no appreciable effect on recidivism.”Robert Martinson (1974) wrote a summary of that book, in which he examined every conceivable program that might help to reduce recidivism.
In 1966, the Governor of New York gave Robert Martinson, Douglas Lipton and Judith Wilkes one huge task: figure out what needs to be done to enable prisons to actually rehabilitate prisoners. The results, as he presented them, were depressing.
Martinson considered the possibility that these findings suggest offenders should be treated outside the prison, but quickly dismissed that idea.
In their review, he and his colleagues found no evidence that treatment outside the prison was any more effective than treatment in prison.
Once time moves beyond their expiration date, drugs can become volatile, unstable, lose potency, and lose efficacy in general.
Because of this fact, it is always a bad idea to medicate any patient, animal or human, with drugs that have already expired.
Perhaps nobody can be “cured”; perhaps they can only be punished and incapacitated.